What are the dynamics in the restless LED grow light market?

Q. 日本7成植物工厂处亏损或惨淡经营状态,这对我们有什么启示?
A. 植物工厂项目能否成功或者是否成功取决于很多要素,但其中最关键的一个因素,我认为是种植的植物种类。据我了解,日本的植物工厂主要是以种植叶菜类为主,当然也有部分像西红柿等的瓜果类植物。但其经济价值相对比较低,高额的投资和运营成本无法承受低价值作物的运营和产出。所以,这类的植物工厂仍然处于投入期。植物工厂要想赚钱,需要考虑两种因素,一是植物价值够高,二是解决有和无的问题。
在正常情况下,只种植叶菜之类的作物,在目前的条件下,要想赚钱是有难度的。但是,也不是不可能。如果能够考虑到特殊人群的特别需要,合适的商业模式,以及可以被接受的新鲜,健康,无污染无公害或者有机等概念,植物工厂所生产出来的作物也是可以体现其价值的。同时,要在降低植物工厂的建造成本上以及其运营成本上下大功夫。在不久的将来植物工厂一定会有大的发展!

Q. 植物照明市场到了一个新的十字路口?
A. 植物光照其实是有两部分作用。一部分可以看成是能量作用。能量作用就是所谓产生ATP,碳同化、氮同化这些作用。另外一个作用就是信号作用,而信号作用包括:赤霉素的增加,EDA等等。这些激素类的变化,跟营养液里面的配方各方面都有很大关系。还包括光合生成的糖等等也都是有很大关系。所以我不认为现在的光配方是成熟的,特别是在信号作用这方面,还有很多可以改善的空间。
针对LED来讲,从紫外到红外,我测算了一下,每隔20到30纳米就对植物生长的不同阶段有特定的作用,这是LED一个很好的特性。

我们的光配方难点在哪里?如何去实现它?并不是说我们把550纳米、570纳米,590纳米、610纳米的LED植物灯做出来以后就变成所谓的光配方,不是的,它是一个复杂的控制系统,所以大家一定不要把光配方想得太简单。
植物照明分两部分,一部分是在全灯光的植物工厂里面,日本肯定是最高水平,应用的范围也最大。因为大多数的植物工厂数量都在日本。另外一部分在补光方面,主要是飞利浦在欧洲和美国地区推动。这样的植物照明在中国为什么没有兴起?这不是因为我们的应用需求少,其实我们的需求远远超过他们,最起码我们在陕北地区,东北西北华北都有很大前景。我去过东北的松原地区,他们那些地方在冬季大概十点半左右才把棉被掀起来,到了两点半以后气温达到了大概五度,两点五十分已经接近零度,所以说在两点半以前必须把棉被重新盖起来,十点半到两点半实际上只有四个小时是有充足光照的,刚陈博士也讲到,光照时间是完全不够的,所以那边的需求量非常大,就模式来说,我觉得大部分是跟需求脱节了,现在植物灯的需求主要在农民那,而我们现在设计出来的灯大多数用在植物工厂包括科研院所和部分企业里面,就这样产生脱节。
现在植物照明市场最大的当然是北欧跟美国市场,然后在亚洲主要是日本。但是我可以说一点,现在很多植物、香草等等都是要花费很长时间运输的,从欧洲到亚洲都有一个很长的运输时间,而社区里面做植物工厂,这是我看到未来可以很快推进的一个方向。

 

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About Seoul Semi’s New “Sunlike” LEDs — Lumenique – Inside Solid-State Lighting

Seoul Semiconductor has pre-released a series of LEDs it has claimed to produce near sun-like color and SPD at an impressive 97CRI. The marketing message is that this represents a breakthrough in delivering a more natural light to the eye, thus supporting improved health and well-being. Here is their claim, specifically: SunLike fundamentally transforms LED […]

via About Seoul Semi’s New “Sunlike” LEDs — Lumenique – Inside Solid-State Lighting

12 Common R/B Ratios for Growing Vegetables

Thanks to the narrow light spectrum of LEDs, flexible combinations of different wavelengths can be realized as required by specific plant to maximize energy utilization and performance. Blue and red lights are proven to be the most effective and dominant wavelengths for most vegetables, while the other portion of spectrum also plays a role in plant growth, development and yield.

phorate

Are there universal light formula for most majority of plants? Consultants are now recommending specific “light recipes” for crops. Lighting aspects include light level, spectrum, required uniformity, position and time. To fine-tune your garden’s lighting needs can both save money and improve yield and quality of crops at the same time. In plant factory applications, electricity for lighting accounts for 30% of the total operation cost, so we will always work with growers to find out the most suitable spectrum and boost the economy of grow facilities.
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Based on researches and applications, 14 common red (620-680nm) to blue (400-500nm) ratios are recommended for grow lighting purposes. Those 14 R/B ratios can be tuned further in combination with other grow factors like temperature, humidity, CO2 density and soil conditions.

(1) Lettuce: R/B ratios 6∶1 and 7∶1 are best for its setting and seedling lights respectively.
(2) Chinese chieves: With lighting of R/B ratio 7∶1, the plant grows better significantly in terms of stem length, thickness, and leaf width.
(3) Cucumber: Light of R/B ratio 7∶2 is best for the growth of cucumber seedling, and 7∶1 for vegetative period.
(4) Water spinach: Light of R/B ratio 7∶1 is the most suitable grow light.
(5) White radish: Light of R/B ratio 8∶1 is best for the growth of white radish.
(6) Leaf lettuce: Light of R/B ratio 9∶1 helps continuous growth.
(7) Strawberry, tomato: Light of R/B ratio 9∶1 may produce best vegetative growth and completely-filled, nutrient-rich fruits.
(8) Chinese ilex: Light of R/B ratio 8∶1 will produce good, strong growth vigor and well-developed root system.
(9) Sprout Vegetable: LED growth light of Red/Green/Blue 6∶2∶1 shows the most obvious effect and performance.
(10) Common callalily: Supplementary lighting of R/B 6∶2 exhibits the best growth effect.
(11) Anthurium: Light of R/B 7∶3 facilitates growth and morphology, root development and dry material accumulation.
(12) Dendrobium officinale: Light of R/B 7:3 shows the best proliferative effect, while 6∶4 is in more favor of seedling photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation.
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Take the lettuce as an example, the parameters for the grow environment are as below:
Toplighting intensity: Fully artificial light 2600-2900lx. On six hours and off two hours in earlier stage; on for 14 hours and off for 10 hours in later stage
Ambient temperature: 28-30℃
Relative humidity: 50%-70%

 

LED tubes reviewing

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We tested the LED tubes at the LIA labs for basic electrical safety, light output and flicker. According to the LIA, none of the LED tubes was totally correctly labelled as required by IEC 62776:2014.

We bench test and rate the latest products from the major brands. Report by Lux technical editor Alan Tulla.

If you are considering replacing your existing fluorescent lamps with LED tubes, you have two choices.

If all you have to do is replace the lamp and starter (and nothing else), make sure that the LED tube complies with BS EN 62776:2015.

If you need to rewire the luminaire, such as bypassing the ballast, we recommend you don’t do it. I’ll explain why later.

There are thousands of T8 installations in the UK, some quite old and in need of refurbishment. There is also the increasing need to save energy. We tested LED tubes from 12 different suppliers. All the tubes were tested at the new Lighting Industry Association laboratories in Telford, UK. The results are shown below. We tested them for basic electrical safety, light output and flicker. According to the LIA, none of the LED tubes was totally correctly labelled as required by IEC 62776:2014.

Note that these LED tubes are unlikely to be suitable for use in luminaires which are used for emergency lighting. Neither can they be dimmed. The tube should carry some kind of symbol to this effect – see below.

Most of the tubes we tested had fixed end caps but some were rotatable. This means that the light emitted can be angled to direct it where you most want it. I.e. the LEDs do not simply point straight down.
Rotating them can be a bit fiddly since you have to adjust the end caps independently. It is much easier to do it at ground level than at height. On one of the tubes we looked at, the cap broke off the end of the tube even before we tested it! End cap strength is part of safety testing to BS EN 62776:2015 so that is another reason to check that your tube conforms.


The full title of BS EN 62776:2015 is “Double-capped LED lamps designed to retrofit linear fluorescent lamps. Safety specifications”. It runs to 34 pages of safety tests because there is a lot to consider. By placing a CE label on the tube the supplier is acknowledging that the product is safe and complies to the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive.

If your fluorescent lamp has an electronic ballast, you only need to swap the lamps. However, not all LED tubes are suitable for all HF ballasts. Some manufacturers, supply a ballast compatibility table.

If the fluorescent lamp has a magnetic or wire-wound ballast you will also need to replace the starter canister. No other rewiring should be required.
Note that this means that the wire-wound ballast remains in the circuit so it will still consume some energy. This may well affect the overall power factor depending on exactly how the original luminaire is wired.

There are also symbols indicating suitability for HF or magnetic gear. The symbol for this should be clearly marked on the tube.

You should ensure that full, complete and unambiguous installation instructions are supplied with the LED tubes. After conversion, the luminaire should have a label stating that it is no longer suitable for fluorescent lamps. Most LED tube manufacturers supply a label with the instructions.


If fitting the LED tube requires you to alter the wiring

When T8 LED tubes were first launched, there were serious concerns about the safety of some tubes where both pairs of pins became live once one pair was inserted in the luminaire. You need to ensure the lamp has a single-end connection.

(other than changing the starter canister), then our recommendation is that you don’t do it. Instead, choose an LED tube that can be simply retrofitted, as above.
The main reason we advise against rewiring is that you then become responsible for the luminaire complying with the relevant safety standards such as BS EN 60598.
Hopefully it will never happen but if there were an accident of any kind, the original luminaire manufacturer and your insurance company would be absolved of any responsibility. The LIA laboratory advise us that this is still the case if swapping the starter and retrofitting an LED tube. If something goes wrong with the magnetic ballast, even through no fault of the LED tube, the original luminaire manufacturer will deny any liability as they can claim the original product was not designed for LED tubes.

We tested the LED tubes at the new LIA Laboratory in Telford, UK. The lab can provide a limited safety assessment if  you are in doubt of the safety risks associated with a LED tube.

A final note about safety
When T8 LED tubes were first launched, there were serious concerns about the safety of some tubes where both pairs of pins became live once one pair was inserted in the luminaire. In this case, the free pins would be live and could easily be touched by the installer before inserting them into the second end cap.
Most importers and suppliers of these tubes are aware of this and now only sell ‘Single-end connection’ tubes. You must check that the tubes you are buying have a single end connection.

The LIA laboratory can also provide a limited safety assessment if in doubt of safety risks.

What else should I check? 

Has the space changed its use?
The first point to make is that the activities in a space and ways of working often change over a period of time. When changing the lighting, you should re-evaluate what the lighting needs are. Obviously, the new scheme should meet the requirements of EN 12464-1 for health and safety reasons, if nothing else. There is plenty of design guidance available from the SLL, ILP and other sources – such as our Design Clinic!

Don’t forget the walls
There is a tendency when energy saving just to consider the horizontal illumination but for many areas such as offices, corridors and car parks, the  vertical illumination (how well you can see someone’s face or read a notice board) is as important.

Glare
High power LEDs can be more glaring than a T8 lamp. If you think glare may be an issue, compare two luminaires side by side or run a glare calculation.

Colour rendering
It’s very easy to achieve high efficiency in terms of lumens per watt if you aren’t concerned about colour rendering. Any CRI greater than 80 should be OK for most applications. It is worth pointing out that the Energy Related Products (ERP) regulations already state that indoor lamps and luminaires should have a minimum CRI of 80 so if it were less, the tube would not be CE compliant.

Life
As a general rule, an increase of 10C above the rated value of an LED tube (typically 25C) halves the life. If your tube is in a sealed luminaire, it may reach 30C or 35C, possibly more in the roof space of a high factory.

More details about all these aspects are in the LIA Technical Statement TS 14.

Symbols
The tube is likely to carry one, or more, of these symbols:

 

The tube should carry this symbol if it is not suitable for emergency lighting.

 

The tube should carry this symbol if it cannot be dimmed.

 

These symbols indicate whether the tube is suitable for a high frequency (HF) ballast or a magnetic ballast.

 

WEEE Compliance
Companies selling LED tubes onto the UK market must comply with the WEEE regulations.  These require producers to fund their share of the costs of recycling waste lamps.  Buying from WEEE compliant suppliers is vital, to ensure that these important environmental obligations are met.  Non-compliant producers risk enforcement and prosecution by the Environment Agency.

 

  • LuxLive 2016 is an unrivalled showcase of the best the industry can offer in terms of the latest technology, developments and expert thinking. It takes  place on 23-24th November 2016 at ExCeL, London.
    For more information, click on the logo. 

Peaking is launching a LED tube with plastic tube, flicker-free (<5%), 5-year warranty! Drop emails to joezhai@peakingtech.com for more information.

Focused beam lights statue on building

This is an application case using 500W LED spotlights to light a status on top of building. The distance between light and statue is up to 80 meters.

tower-light(1)

The LED spotlights adopt 6-degree reflector cups to produce intense, narrow beam,  500W and lumen output 50,000lm. Their robust rugged construction enables IP65 protection level.

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Below are the optical test results of the 500W outdoor LED spotlight. See more details in our showroom: http://www.yoursled.com

TS500-500W optical results

Plastic T8 LED Tube – Perfect Replacement Solution

  • Full plastic construction, 100% free of electric shock, antiflaming material UL94 V-0 grade
  • Standard T8 dimensions with G13 end caps, dual pins or single pin selectable
  • Efficacy up to 120lm/W, CRI>80, CCT 3000K/4000K/6000K selectable
  • Product of lean manufacturing, high quality, long lifespan (>50,000hours)
  • Perfect replacement for traditional fluorescent T8/T10 tubes
  • CE, RoHS, FCC certificates, 5-year warranty

Key facts

Model P4FT-T8-18W
Name Retrofit T8 LED tube light – 4ft/18W, 3ft/14W, 2ft/10W
Input 85~347Vac, PF>0.95, THD<25%
Light effect Uniform, flicker free
Lumen, typ. 2000lm
CCT/CRI 3000K/4000K/6000K, CRI80
Beam angle 180°
Base Standard G13, supporting customization of FA8/R17D
Diameter Ø25.4 mm
Certification CE, RoHS, FCC, UL
Warranty Five years

iPhone 7 May Include LI-FI capability

According to rumor, A LI-FI capability may be included in iPhone 7 or later versions, which means high-speed data accesses via visible lighting. It will be a new era of LED lights in both residential and commercial lighting applications.

LiFi  in iPhone7
LiFi may be enabled in iPhone7

The endorsement of a tech giant like Apple would transform the technology from scientific curiosity into a mainstream technique for accessing the internet, and provide a huge boost to the LED lighting industry.

The iPhone’s OS now openly references li-fi capability in its programming code and may open development interfaces soon to third-party developers.

Li-fi uses modulated visible light from LEDs to transmit data to LiFi-enabled devices. It’s invisible to the human eye, and is much faster than traditional WI-FI.

Apple already holds a patent on using its camera to capture data as well as images, so the company is well placed to exploit the new technology.

It’s not the first time this year that Apple has been making news in the lighting industry.

Last month the company added a blue-light reduction feature into an update to its operating system in what was widely seen as the first acknowledgement by a major manufacturer that blue light can be a health hazard.

In January Apple received its first ever patent for a lighting system, in a move that has again raised the issue of the company’s intentions in the lighting market.

Li-fi, smart connectivity and the Internet of Things will be discussed at a special debate at the LuxLive Middle East 2016 on Wednesday 13 April and Thursday 14 April at the Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre.

wi-fi-li-fi